Course catalogue doctoral education - HT20

  • Ansökan kan ske mellan 2020-04-15 och 2020-05-15
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Title Anaesthesia, analgesia and surgery (mice and rats)
Course number 2996
Programme 0-Inte del av forskarutbildningsprogram
Language English
Credits 1.5
Notes A Laboratory Animal Science course.

Date 2019-12-02 -- 2019-12-06
Responsible KI department Komparativ medicin
Specific entry requirements Students need to complete the ""Function A"" laboratory animal science course (to carry out scientific procedures on animals), or must have completed an equivalent course.
Purpose of the course The course is designed to meet the learning outcomes specified by the education and training recommendations supplied as an annex to EU Directive 2010/63/EU, which has been endorsed by Swedish legislation L150 (SJVFS 2017:40). Education and training in anaesthesia, analgesia and surgery is both essential, and a legal requirement, for all those who need to undertake such procedures on laboratory animals. Applying appropriate anaesthetic, analgesic and surgical techniques to in vivo studies enhances outcomes from research studies, reduces data variability, and is perceived as ethically acceptable.
Intended learning outcomes After completion of this course, the students should be able to meet the defined learning outcomes as set out in the EU Education and Training Framework, specifically in modules 20, 21 and 22. Each module requires both theoretical knowledge, and acquisition and demonstration of practical skills. The list of suggested learning outcomes by such guidelines is comprehensive, but in summary, participants will acquire the knowledge and skills to anaesthetize animals safely and humanely, assess and alleviate post-surgical pain, and be able to conduct surgical procedures competently, using appropriate aseptic technique. Recognition of pain, suffering and distress, and appropriate use of euthanizing mice and rats will also be covered.
Contents of the course The course provides guidance and information to individuals who, during their research work with animals, will need to apply sedation or anaesthesia and who will undertake surgical or other painful procedures. It includes details of methods of assessing, preventing and alleviating animal pain. The use of appropriate killing methods of rodents will also be included. The course will include training in the most recently developed behavioural measures of pain, including use of grimace scales. Monitoring of animals during anaesthesia, and coping with problems and emergencies are explained and demonstrated. Potential interactions between anaesthetic and analgesic agents and specific research protocols are also explained and discussed.
Training is given in the principles of pre-operative animal assessment and care, preparations for surgery, aseptic technique and the principles of successful surgery. The course provides information about possible complications, post-operative care and monitoring along with details of the healing process. It also covers more practical elements for example the demonstration of commonly used instruments and provides an opportunity for trainees to practice some of the practical aspects of basic surgical technique, such as methods of suturing, using appropriate non-animal models.
Teaching and learning activities The course will adopt a blended learning approach that combines e-learning, seminar lectures, discussions, interactive sessions and practical components.

In addition to three e-learning modules on laboratory animal welfare, laboratory animal anaesthesia, and laboratory animal euthanasia, nine face-to-face seminar lectures will be given:
- Introduction to anaesthesia - basic principles and definitions, anaesthesia and the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement), selection of anaesthetics.
- Preparation for anaesthesia, inhalational anaesthesia.
- Injectable anaesthetics.
- Monitoring anaesthesia and intra-operative care.
- Long term anaesthesia and use of ventilators and neuromuscular blocking drugs.
- Post-operative care - fluids, nutrition and nursing care.
- Pain assessment and pain alleviation.
- Surgery and aseptic techniques (1).
- Surgery and aseptic techniques (2).
The seminars incorporate video material and lecture notes will be provided. The course also includes problem solving sessions, which encourage students to reflect on the application of the course content in their own research area, and encourages them to discuss and explain their work with other participants. Interactive problem based sessions will be included to facilitate discussions. Interactive sessions will be used throughout the seminars to encourage participation and engagement by the students. Laboratory practical sessions (5-6 hours) on anaesthesia and surgical skills are interspersed with the seminars and interactive sessions.
Compulsory elements All face-to-face sessions and active student participation are compulsory if the student is to be provided with certification of the successful completion of the course. Missed parts of the course as a consequence of a well-justified absence will need to be compensated after agreement with the course director e.g. with a written assignment or in future course editions.
Examination Practical skills are assessed during the laboratory session using direct observation of practical skills, and a short answer/multiple choice question final written examination is held following conclusion of the course. A pass/fail criteria will be used as a global rate for this course.
Literature and other teaching material Detailed lecture notes are provided, that support all of the specified learning outcomes. Additional teaching materials are available on-line at (anaesthesia for minor procedures, assessment of pain and distress, and euthanasia). Copies of all seminars and transcripts of interactive and discussion sessions are provided to the students.

As the key reference material, the students are referred to:

1. Flecknell, PA, (2015) Laboratory Animal Anaesthesia, Elsevier, 4th Edition, New York.

1. Bukhari, Qasim, et al. ""Resting State fMRI in Mice Reveals Anesthesia Specific Signatures of Brain Functional Networks and Their Interactions."" Frontiers in Neural Circuits 11 (2017).
2. Cooper, Dale M., Robroy Mciver, and Richard Bianco. ""The thin blue line: a review and discussion of aseptic technique and postprocedural infections in rodents."" Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science39.6 (2000): 27-32.
3. Descovich, Kris A., et al. ""Facial expression: An under-utilised tool for the assessment of welfare in mammals."" ALTEX (2017).
4. Faller, Kiterie ME, et al. ""Refinement of analgesia following thoracotomy and experimental myocardial infarction using the Mouse Grimace Scale."" Experimental physiology 100.2 (2015): 164-172.
5. Flecknell, P.A. (2015) Laboratory Animal Anaesthesia, 4th Edition, Elsevier, New York.
6. National Research Council of the National Academies (2009). Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals, National Academies Press, Washington D.C.
7. Uhrig, L., S. Dehaene, and B. Jarraya. ""Cerebral mechanisms of general anesthesia."" Annales francaises d'anesthesie et de reanimation. Vol. 33. No. 2. Elsevier Masson, 2014.

E-learning resources
8. Lab Animal Welfare.
9. Lab Animal Anaesthesia.
10. Lab Animal Euthanasia.
11. Aseptic Technique in Rodent Surgery:
Number of students 8 - 16
Selection of students Selection will be based on the relevance of the course syllabus for the applicant's doctoral project (need to use anaesthetic or surgical techniques in rodent models), which will be according to written motivation. If necessary, additional selection criterion will be used based on the date for registration as a doctoral student (priority given to earlier registration date).
More information This course will be held from Monday to Friday between approx. 9am and 5pm. Location: Learning Lab, von Eulers väg 4A, 2nd floor, Campus Solna. Key topics of this course include basic and advanced anaesthetic and analgesia, and basic surgical procedures on laboratory animals, with focus on anaesthesia, pain recognition and analgesia in rodent models. The main instructor of this course is internationally-recognized expert Professor Paul Flecknell, MA, VetMB, PhD, DECLAM, DLAS, DECVA, (Hon) DACLAM, (Hon) FRCVS, author of the Handbook Laboratory Animal Anaesthesia, 4th Edition, and a number of research publications and educational material in the field. Course leader is Head of Eductaion at Comparative Medicine, Rafael Frias, DVM, MSc, PhD, Assoc. Prof (LAS), who will also be instructing in this course.
Additional course leader
Latest course evaluation Course evaluation report
Course responsible Rafael Frias
Komparativ medicin
Contact person -